Go beyond showing versus telling.

There are three primary paths to producing an emotional response in readers. The first is to report what characters are feeling so effectively that readers feel something, too. This is inner mode, the telling of emotions. The second is to provoke in readers what characters may be feeling by implying their inner state through external action. This is outer mode, the showing of emotions. And the third method is to cause readers to feel something that a story’s characters do not themselves feel. This is other mode, an emotional dialogue between author and reader. The reader reacts, resists, and sometimes succumbs, but thanks to the author’s skill, she can never escape the churn and flow of her own feelings.